Saturday, March 14, 2020

Factors In Health Care Organizations That Affect Patient Safety. How

Factors In Health Care Organizations That Affect Patient Safety. How Factors In Health Care Organizations That Affect Patient Safety. How Is The Human Factor Revelant To – Article Example Factors in Health Care Organizations that Affect Patient Safety. How is The Human Factor Relevant to Patient Safety. of Factorsin Health Care Organizations that Affect Patient Safety. How is The Human Factor Relevant to Patient Safety.NameName of Institution Factors in Health Care Organizations that Affect Patient Safety. How is The Human Factor Relevant to Patient Safety? Patient safety is paramount to any hospital and health care worker. The health care workers take an oath that provides a promise to protect the sanctity of life. The factors that are paramount to patient safety all revolve around the medical personnel. This paper narrows down to the Human factors in patient safety. The organizational managerial procedures influence the human factor in terms of safety culture. The management has the task to cultivate this culture by giving questioner surveys to patients to monitor their staff (World Health Organization, 2009, p. 12). The leadership style that encourage patient saf ety, many hospitals its only doctors that are allowed to prescribe and the nurses effect the prescription. The structures of communication in the hospital on patient safety are essential in this case. The patient progress is noted down to encourage informed prescriptions. Team work is a human factor that is key to patient safety. It ranges from shifts that work in words to the team of experts in the theater room. The patient safety is guaranteed by team work tools like objective briefing for a particular team and management attitude tools as ORMAQ (World Health Organization, 2009, p. 25). Individual personalities play a big role in patient safety. Many refer to the medical field as a calling profession. This implies that the management should foster the care and concern attitude among its staff. Situation awareness and decision making skills are essential to ensure patient safety when the medical machines fail. The health workers should be in a position to monitor what is happeni ng and what to expect. In conclusion all these factors play a big role in patient safety. Fatigue management techniques are also essential to ensure that the patient well being is safe. ReferencesWorld Health Organization. (2009). Human Factors in Patient SafetyReview of Topics and Tools:Report for Methods and Measures Working Group of WHO Patient Safety April 2009. New York: World Health Organization.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Supply Chain Design Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Supply Chain Design - Essay Example Customer service in the industry within which Meditech is operating is a crucial consideration, owing to the urgency of medical operations. Failure to deliver equipment in a timely manner, therefore, places the Company at a risk of incurring losses and losing its competitive advantage. For Meditech to retain its current share of the market, drastic supply chain management measures must be executed (Simchi-Levi et al., p. 18). Introduction Acute competition in the contemporary international markets, continuous introduction of commodities with short life spans, as well as, increased customer expectations are some of the factors that have prompted most businesses to focus extensively on management of supply chains. The mentioned aspects, coupled with constant progress in procurement and communications technologies, also motivate the uninterrupted development of supply chains and techniques for their effective management. In an ordinary chain of supply, manufacturers procure raw material s, produce commodities and ship them to warehouses for transitional storage, later shipping the products to customers or retailers. This is not any different from the procedure followed by Meditech. However, logistical problems are bound to occur in a supply chain, warranting better management of the interactions between suppliers, manufacturing departments, storage facilities, and retail outlets. Problems may also arise in management of raw materials, work-in-process (WIP) inventory, as well as, the inventory of finished products (Simchi-Levi, Kaminsky, and Simchi-Levi, 2003 p.1). This paper seeks to establish these problems in Meditech’s context and propose possible solutions. Problems in Introduction of new products The chain of development is a series of processes and activities linked to introduction of new products. This chain encompasses the design stage, the related abilities and information that must be developed within a company, sourcing decisions, as well as, plan s for production. Meditech decided to adopt a unique development chain over the past few years. This strategy involves constant introduction of innovative products into the surgical instruments market, by primarily updating the existing ones. Even though the new products are generally accepted in the market, each introduction appeared to bring about a wide array of supply troubles (Simchi-Levi et al., p. 22). For instance, customers began to get tired of the low quality service accompanying each new product introduction. The Company also constantly suffered acute shortages with each product launch. Demand forecasting became increasingly difficult for Meditech, and to make matters worse, establishing the extent of damage was hard. Additionally, irrespective of the high inventory levels, the actual level of service declined sharply, largely undermining the Company’s objectives. Overall, the principal problems faced by Meditech include lack of communication between the marketing department and the procurement department, as well as, constant introduction of innovative products, which had a significant impact on the production line. Further, the supply chain management process jammed up, delaying the release of customers’ orders. Problem Drivers One of the potential causes of Meditech’s poor inventory management problem is â€Å"panic ordering† by affiliates and dealers. This is a phenomenon which occurs when a customer is not sure about timely delivery of products. As a result, the

Monday, February 10, 2020

Peace Treaties and Blame for the War__WWI Term Paper

Peace Treaties and Blame for the War__WWI - Term Paper Example try with biggest responsibility over the war was attributable to the belief by other allies that Germany was responsible for the war.3 Countries that participated in the war were exhausted and their economies destroyed. Almost every family was a casualty of the war. In particular, French land was completely in a mess and Germany was held responsible for the damage. France wanted revenge over Germany and wanted her to be punished and crippled for causing her destruction. This was meant to teach Germany a lesson to deter her from instigating another war. With tremendous growth in the Europe in the 20th century, there were tension that this kind of growth could lead to emergence of war to maintain the levels of trade and technologies. The increase of social unrest and political struggle characterized the tension. Before the 1870s, Germany was made up of several minute kingdoms instead of one united nation. In the 1860s the kingdom of Prussia instigated a series of conflicts aimed at uniting German kingdoms. In 1870s, the North German Confederation entered into conflict with France and Bismarck. This led to the Franco-Prussian war that forced German rout the French. In early 1871, the country was united and the treaty of Frankfurt ended the war. Although Germany wanted to unit its kingdoms and become one nation, the events that followed saw the emergence of war that led to destruction of the economies of the allies. Boundaries were a common goal of Germany in the effort to unit its kingdoms. However, the method used led to involvement of other territories such as France, something that led to war and loss of life of territories that were not concerned with the interest of Germany. Therefore, the punishment of Germany could be argued to be justified since she had already caused political differences between countries bordering it. Although the war had a positive impact in that Germany was later united, the means of acquiring the one state was not justified. Besides,

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Afghanistan Taliban Regime Essay Example for Free

Afghanistan Taliban Regime Essay The motion picture Osama really has the capacity to move anyone’s heart. Unsurprisingly, it garnered awards and commendations from several award-giving bodies in the film industry (Ebert 500). However, the bonafide intention of this motion flick is for the world to know the story of women under the Afghanistan Taliban regime. Moreover, women and young girls suffered so much misery under the sadistic governance of Taliban people. Real life story such as this reflects that women from some parts of the world have little freedom or truly there is no liberty at all. We are on the era where everything seems so easy to achieve and women have the power to rule things within their hands. However, many female individuals including Afghan women take so many years before they can do something for their own welfare. Afghanistan is severely devastated from the past hostilities and so as the Afghan women. No doubt that Afghanistan is one of the most poverty-stricken countries on earth. Nevertheless, the mortality rate of both maternal and child are extremely below par which is considered to be the second highest among nations in the world. Women’s literacy is beyond acceptable rate for the reason that they are not given enough education. So to speak, only few female individuals are given the chance to study and participate in building the nation. During the Taliban’s dictatorship, female population is strictly discriminated in many aspects. Women and girls do not have enough access to employment, education and most especially to health care facilities. Inadequate medical assistance worsens the circumstances of pregnant women and newborn child. Malnutrition among Afghan people also increases every month and the unacceptable governance of the Taliban regime aggravates the present condition. There is a very small portion of female population who are lucky enough to receive informal primary education. Even the education system of the opposite gender is also affected by the prohibition of female employment because most of the educators are women. Since the Talibans take charge of the Afghan government, education system starts to descend. Apparently, fewer educated individuals mean lesser chance of getting a descent job. Women are not able to travel or wander alone so those widowed women and single women who participate as the head of the family are well affected. A male relative must accompany a female family member at all times or else the latter will be captured and put into jail. Another thing that disregards women’s contribution in building a nation is when a decree was issued by the Taliban regime banning women from driving vehicles in any form. Women’s seclusion in their homes is an obvious chauvinism of the Taliban government. Several reports of harassments and physical assaults are also perceived among Afghan women. The closing stage of Osama breaks my heart. As I see the finale, my mind starts to contemplate what would happen to Osama now that she has to be a wife of an old man. Osama’s so young to live through things which are not really meant to be. She must not be in that situation. Moreover, she must still be studying or perhaps enjoying her life as a kid. Women are not objects that can compensate a person’s debt to other people. Women are part of this world, they give life. Their presence is very significant in each and every one. Without these women, there will be no tomorrow. Mr. Siddiq Barmak, the director of the film leaves the viewer to hang into something that would strengthen one’s hope and faith. He believes that life is a journey and each road leads us to a situation where we need to choose what we think what’s best for us. He clearly reminded the spectators that though we’re on the side of the world where we only see how the sun shines and sets, there is also another half of the world who could not get a glimpse of the sun until now. He effectively strikes a chord to wake up the other side of world to lend a hand to let the dying Afghan women and children to experience freedom and live a normal life. Warfare among women and children must be ended and democracy among people must win to end this kind of battle. The battle to raise children and women’s welfare isn’t over. This is just the beginning – when realization takes place. Work Cited Ebert, Roger. Roger Ebert’s Movie Yearbook. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2008.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Graduation Speech: Finding the Good Stuff :: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

The culmination of a dozen years of formal education is at hand - a just cause for celebration! You have fulfilled a quantifiable set of requirements, but what did you really learn? You have demonstrated your ability to cope with deadlines, social stress, challenging situations, major life changes, and even smelly gym socks. Knowledge is the progeny of struggle. Every challenge and adverse situation you've endured has served to strengthen your adaptability and taught you valuable lessons. All of the events that have been shared with friends, educators and parents in the past four years are experiences that have been infused into each individual's sense of self and will continue to influence your future. You have reached the end of an era, yet that era will remain forever with you. As you venture out, hopefully instilled with the knowledge you have gained, the future will abound with new and challenging opportunities. As you begin a new stage of life, (and the beginning of the end of your life), I want to tell you something someone once told me: "You know, life is like a possum in a trash can." That was a new one on me! "Yeah," I said. "How?" "Well, if the possum just sits in the can, it'll scrounge on the tidbits on top. But if the can gets shaken and rolled around a bit, the possum can get to the really good slop at the bottom." At first it just sounded like one of those "You might be redneck if ..." cartoons, but then I realized that there was a pertinent message underlying the seemingly mundane adage. Don't be contented with the bare minimum - what's given to you, what's comfortable, what's familiar, what's easy - that's just grazing the top. Shake the can! You can be like that lazy possum and nibble on the discarded pudding wrappers, soggy Cheetos and wood shavings of yesterday. Or, you can seize the moment and rattle the can around to get at the licorice, fudge, chocolate truffle ice cream and half-eaten cheesecake of last week. The world holds much more to be experienced than it easily and readily delivers. Often times, school and social pressure condition us to think and act certain ways. Throughout our daily routines young people are pressured by society to think and act certain ways, to settle neatly into a niche that feels comfortable. Over time, we become accustomed to conforming to preconceived notions of what is expected and "normal.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Improving Service Quality in Hotel and Resort

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The first chapter of report will explain the purpose of the report and why this report is important. In chapter 2, the service quality will be identified. There are two parts in this chapter: the first part will discuss concept and principle of the service quality and the following part will note the service quality models. Mainly the SERVQUAL model and the Total Quality Management (TQM) will be examined. Then in chapter 3, implementation, the chosen organisation which is the Club Mediterranean (Club Med) will be applied for the service quality model. The last chapter is conclusion of the report and the Appendices will be stated next to reference list. TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦2p Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1 Purpose of the Report †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4p Chapter 2: Service Quality 2. 1 Principles of Service Quality †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5p 2. 2 Service Quality Models †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6p Chapter 3: Implementation 3. 1 Background of the Club Med †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦8p 3. 2 Steps of Implementation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9p Chapter 4: Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦12p Reference List †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 13p Appendices†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦15p CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. 1 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT â€Å"Service organizations exist as a function of their customers; service quality then, is the primary survival strategy† (Schneider and Chung, 1993, p. 124). Carey (2003) note that the service quality is a subject that permeates every component of the tourism industry. Especially in hotel and resort, the service quality is integral for long term survival. Therefore each company should take the service quality as serious management philosophy and have to adopt theories and models to identify gap between expectation and perception. CHAPTER 2: SERVICE QUALITY 2. 1 PRINCIPLES OF SERVICE QUALITY Service quality is defined as the degree of excellence intended that meets customer requirements (Wyckoff, 1992). However, Carey (2003) points out the service quality, the result of a comparison between the expectations of a customer and the actual service they received. Therefore, understanding gap between the expectation and the received service can be a key source of the service quality. According to Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons (2001), these expectations are based on several sources, including word of mouth, personal needs, and past experience. Thus, people may have more expectation on the high-rated hotel. Usually, the five-star hotels are more expensive than the lower level so customers may expect to get serviced as much as they pay. In other word, the service quality can be a primary goal for hotels to gain more profits. To put simply, better quality means better profitability and market share and when higher quality and large market share are both present, profitability is nearly guaranteed (Ross, 1993). According to Scheuing and Christopher (1993) the service quality is a powerful force that reshapes attitudes and actions toward creating customer satisfaction and loyalty, and thus, sustainable competitive advantage in an unstable environment of dynamic global competition. Accordingly, the managers who work in hospitality industry need to know not only how to manage the organisation but also how to manage the service quality to provide customer satisfaction continuously. 2. SERVICE QUALITY MODELS Levitt (1972) argues that the theories and concepts of quality and its management have adopted slowly into the service industry from manufacturing. Rather than a paradigm shift taking place, the existing quality theories and models were held in their entirety by parts of the service sector and the paradigm shift occurred when difficulties were occurred in the sector, for example, the use of only qualitative data analysis methods (Williams & Buswell, 2003). There are many service quality theories and concepts have been used such as the Statistical Process Control (SPC), Ten Benchmarks of Total Quality Control, and the 14-step Quality Improvement Programme, However, in following paragraphs will discuss two service quality models which are SERVQUAL and Total Quality Management that is known as TQM. 2. 2. 1 SERVQUAL model SERVQUAL is a survey instrument that measures service quality. According to Saleh and Ryan (1991), it was initially devised for the assessment of services within the financial sector, and consists of a 22-item, seven-point Likert Scale but not all of the issues were directly applicable to a hotel. However Martin (1986) offers a 40-item scale in the assessment of service within restaurants, and from this a number of questions were picked and adapted for hotel and finally therefore, a 33-item and five-point Likert Scale instrument was developed. There are five dimensions of service quality: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. In the guest survey, the customer will answer the questions which are based on the five dimensions. Fitzsimmons et al (2001) point out the multiple dimensions of service quality are captured in the SERVQUAL instrument, which is an effective tool for surveying customer satisfaction that is based on the service quality gap model. 2. 2. 2 Total Quality Management (TQM) Bardi (2007) states that preparation for adopting TQM is necessary to achieve success goal in hotel. Biech (1994) defined Total Quality Management (TQM) as a customer-focused, quality-centered, fact-based, team-driven, senior-management-led process to achieve an organization’s strategic imperative through continuous process improvement. In its simplest form, the TQM is a management philosophy which states that the whole organisation is working for meeting the customer’s need and expectation (Williams et al, 2003). The TQM has two major proceedings: customer requirements and expectations determination and these requirements and expectations’ deliver organising (Ross, 1993). Ross (1993) points out that the measurement of success is customer satisfaction and the only way to achieve the successive customer satisfaction is through continuous improvement by TQM. CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION: 3. 1 BACKGROUND OF THE CLUB MED Club Mediterranean (Club Med) is an international hotel chain company operating worldwide resort villages. Club Med was founded in 1950 by Gerard Blitz who is the two time Olympic medalist champion while Blitz stayed at the Olympic Club’s tent village where he had the idea to combine his passion for humanitarian causes with athleticism. The initial concept of the Club Med was to offer people to enjoy sports holidays with reasonable price. The company expanded through the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and during 1980s it continued to diversify and decentralize, becoming ever more international (International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 1994). Today, the Club Med is with over 80 villages across 5 continents at beaches to mountain, ski resort, and even history-rich area and with its G. Os that are members of staff representing around a hundred nationalities speaking over 30 languages and it continues to emphsise its multicultural aspect. Currently the company offers five styles of holiday, so that people can choose the village that best meets their holiday expectations. The Club Med’s aim is to provide its customers with a holiday as close to perfection as possible by creating a unique atmosphere which engenders a sense of wellbeing, as well as by providing top-quality amenities, the company aims for total customer satisfaction (International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 1994). 3. 2 STEPS OF IMPLEMENTATION As the report discussed above, the Club Med can use whether SERVQUAL model or TQM method to improve the company’s service quality. However if both two model used together, it will make synergy effect on the business. First, to adopt SERVQUAL model on the Club Med, quantitative research will be used and the data are from existing the company’s record. Not only the quantitative data but also qualitative research will be used to identify the service quality gaps which brought to inconsistency between the guest expectations and the guest perceptions. The staffs of the Club Med can have in-depth and face-to-face interviews. The interviewees will be included the reception GOs, the sport activity GOs, the bar and restaurant GOs and whoever village GOs to identify the gap. This provided the researcher to recognize which department has the most contact with the GMs (gentle member that known as guest of the Club Med). Next step is for sampling procedures and in the process the reception desk or the front desk will allow information relate guest complaints. It is because of in many hotels, the front desk has high level of contact with guests and also the reception desk will receive the majority of guest complaints (Carey, 2003). The two survey populations will be the GMs and the GOs. In addition for the guests, the guest survey can be asked. For instance, the Likert Scale survey which is asking guests to rate each activity or department in a scale of 1 to 5 can be used. Currently, the Club Med is using customer satisfaction ratings virtually. According to Fitzsimmons et al (2001), the Club Med uses the questionnaire and it is mailed to all guests directly after their departure from a Club Med vacation to assess the quality of their experience in the village. The information from the survey completed by guest is used in several ways. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance (1994) points out that if there is a complaint about one of Club Med’s villages, head office immediately reports back to the village manager. After all the interviewing and surveying, data collection and analysis by coding will be necessary to identify the service gaps. Through the coding analysis, finally the Club Med can find gaps in the service process. Therefore the Club Med an get a broad response and a better understanding of guest expectations and perceptions to improve their service quality. Next, to adopt the Total Quality Management (TQM) on the Club Med, as shown in the appendix 1, there are several steps for implementing TQM. The first step is defining the mission. According to the International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance (1994), the Club Med’s aim is to provide its customers with a holiday as close to perfection as possible. Thus the company’s mission is total customer satisfaction. The second step is for identifying system output and the third is for identifying customers. To use of demographic questionnaire can be useful not only to know the guests but to set a target markets so improve systems as their requirement. Then the next step is for negotiating customers’ requirements. From the bargain, developing a â€Å"supplier specification† that details customer requirements and expectations is the next. Finally, determining the necessary activities required to fulfill those requirements and expectation will be finished the implementing TQM. On the contrary, Dale (1994) notes that number of barriers to achieving TQM that shows in appendix 2. Accordingly, the company should avoid several components as lack of commitment from senior management to service quality so the Club Med’s head office must focus on the service quality improvements continuously. The second component to avoid is fear of the changes to work patterns and processes. Thus the senior management should empower employees. Then lack of resources and no customer focus is following. To improve service quality and to adopt TQM, company has to keep focus on the customers’ requirements. For the last, without correct data collection and analysis, the Club Med can not meet improved service quality. CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION The service quality will be a major component of the future hospitality industry continuously. Therefore hotels need to manage the service quality with various theories and methods. As discussed above, this report has applied SERVQUAL and TQM on the Club Med to identify the service gaps. Accordingly, if the Club Med uses the service quality, they can reduce gap and provide customer satisfaction. The any efforts from hotel’s marketing an not be stand on long term period solely. However, the quality of the interactive service between hotelier and the guest can be possibly long term and this can be why the improving service quality is important to hotel. Both service quality theories and models’ measurement is a customer satisfaction. Thus to improve a hotel or resort’s service quality with customer satisfaction, the whole of departme nts should link and think about the service quality together so the all of employees and the senior mangers generate continuous improvements. REFERENCE LIST Bardi, J. A. , (2007). Hotel Front Office Management (4th ed. ). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Biech, E. (1994). TQM for Training. US: McGraw-Hill. Carey, K. L. (2003). Improving service quality in small communities: the Bahamas as a model. Las Vegas: University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Club Med. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from http://www. clubmed. com. us Dale, B. G. (1994). Managing Quality (2nd ed. ). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall. Fitzsimmons, J. A. , & Fitzsimmons, M. J. (2001). Service Management: operations, strategy, and information technology (3rd ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance (1994). Sun, Sea, Sand and Service, 7(4), 18-19. Levitt, T. (1972). Production-line approach to service. Harvard Business Review. In C. Williams, J. Buswell, Service Quality in Leisure and Tourism. London: CABU Publishing. Martin, W. B. (1986). Quality Service, The Restaurant Manager’s Bible. US: Brodock Press. Saleh, F. , & Ryan, C. (1991). Analysing Service Quality in the Hospitality Industry Using the SERVQUAL Model. The Service Industry Journal, 11(3), 324-345. Schneider, B. , & Chung, B. (1993). Creating service climates for service quality. In E. Scheuing, W. Christopher (Eds. ), The Service Quality Handbook. New York: American Management Association. Snow Japan. (n. d. ). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from http://www. snowjapan. com/e/services/club-med. html Ross, J. E. (1993). Total Quality Management: text, cases, and readings. Florida: St. Lucie Press. Williams, C. , & Buswell, J. (2003). Service Quality in Leisure and Tourism. London: CABI Publishing. Wyckoff, D. D. (1992). New tools for achieving service quality. In C. H. Lovelock (Eds. ), Managing Services: marketing, operations and human resources. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall. APPENDICES [Appendix 1] Implementing TQM by †¢Defining the mission †¢Identifying system output †¢Identifying customers †¢Negotiating customers’ requirements †¢Developing a â€Å"Supplier specification† that details customer requirements and expectations †¢Determining the necessary activities required to fulfill those requirements and expectations. Source: Ross, J. E. (1993). â€Å"Implementing TQM†. Total Quality Management: text, cases, and readings. p. 2. Florida: St. Lucie Press. ) [Appendix 2] Number of barriers to achieving TQM †¢Lack of commitment from senior management to service quality †¢Fear of the changes to work patterns and processes †¢Lack of resources †¢No customer focus †¢Poor data colle ction or analysis (Source: Williams, C. , & Buswell, J. (2003). â€Å"Number of Barriers to Achieving TQM†. Service Quality in Leisure and Tourism. p. 22-23. London: CABI Publishing. )

Monday, January 6, 2020

Character Study of Reverend Parris in The Crucible

Like many of the events and characters in â€Å"The Crucible,† Reverend Parris is based on an actual person: Reverend Samuel Parris. Parris became the minister of Salem Village in 1689, and he was as involved in the real witch trials as Arthur Miller’s character. Some historians even consider him a primary cause of the ordeal, citing sermons in which he described, with great certainty, the presence of the Devil in Salem; he even went so far as to write a sermon titled â€Å"Christ Knows How Many Devils There Are,† in which he mentioned that â€Å"dreadful witchcraft broke out here a few weeks past,† instilling fear among the congregation. Parris: The Character In The Crucible, Parris is shown to be despicable in many ways, some of which are based on the real person. This town preacher believes himself to be a pious man, but in truth, he is motivated entirely by self-interest. Many of Parris parishioners, including the Proctor family, have stopped attending church on a regular basis; his sermons of hellfire and damnation have shunned many of Salems residents. Because of his unpopularity, he feels persecuted by many of the citizens of Salem. Still, a few residents, such as Mr. and Mrs. Putnam, do favor his harsh sense of spiritual authority. Parris’ Reputation Throughout the play, one of Parris’ main concerns is for his reputation. When his own daughter falls ill, his main worries are not for her health but for what the town will think of him if they suspect there is witchcraft in his home. In Act 3, when Mary Warren testifies that she and the girls were only ever pretending to be affected by witchcraft, Parris pushes her statement aside—he would rather continue the trials than deal with the scandal of his daughter and niece being known as liars. Parris’ Greed Parris is also motivated by selfishness, though he camouflages his actions with a facade of holiness. For example, he once wanted his church to have gold candlesticks. Therefore, according to John Proctor, the reverend preached only about the candlesticks until he attained them. In addition, Proctor once mentions that Salems previous ministers never owned property. Parris, on the other hand, demands to have the deed to his home. This is a power play as well, as he fears that the residents may cast him out of the town and, therefore, wants an official claim to his property. Parris’ End Parris lack of redeemable qualities continues to show during the plays resolution. He wants to save John Proctor from the hangmans noose, but only because he worries that the town may rise against him and perhaps kill him in retaliation. Even after Abigail steals his money and runs away, he never admits fault, making his character all the more frustrating to behold.